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Photodiode circuit

High-speed photodiode circuit

The high-speed photodiode circuit in Figure 1 uses a low capacitance PIN photodiode (PD), load resistance (RL), and a high-speed operational amplifier (U). Figure 1. High-speed photodiode circuit In this configuration, the photodiode is reverse biased and used in photoconductive mode. The short circuit current from the photodiode is forced…

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GPS: GGA, RMC, and GLL NMEA sentence structure

If I were to hazard a guess, I’d assume that you are here because you hooked up a Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) module to a microcontroller and now you are confused about which data to use. The most commonly used GNSS worldwide is the Global Positioning System (GPS). As…

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Molded Interconnectb Device

What are Molded Interconnect Devices (MIDs)?

A Molded Interconnect Device (MID), to put it simply, is an injection-molded plastic device that combines mechanical and electrical functionality. This plastic part incorporates a conductive material pattern similar to a printed circuit board (PCB). Usually, MIDs are the solution for routing interconnections, or mounting components, on a three-dimensional (3D)…

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Via in pad UFBGA PCB

Via in Pad (VIP) in PCB Design

Consumers prefer smaller electronic devices. To make smaller devices, you need smaller electronic components. Due to the fine pad pitch of the components, standard via routing might not always be an option. In this case, a via in pad (VIP) is used. The design method known as “via in pad”…

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ADC output value to voltage

ADC value to voltage calculation

An analog to digital converter (ADC) takes an input voltage and produces a binary output code. This output code is directly proportional to the input voltage. A binary code is made up of two digits, also known as bits, 0 (zero) and 1 (one). The number of bits depends on…

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Analog to digital converter ADC with analog signal and digital output


An analog-to-digital converter, often known as an ADC, is used whenever analog inputs from the real world need to be converted to digital signals. There are many different types of ADCs, and each one has a unique combination of advantages and disadvantages. In this article, instead of delving into ADC…

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Photodiode symbol and metal case with leads


A photodiode is a light-sensitive semiconductor device with a p-n or p-i-n structure. A photodiode produces current when it absorbs photons (or light). We will discuss two operation modes of photodiodes: photovoltaic and photoconductive. HOW PHOTODIODE WORKS When a photon of sufficient energy strikes an atom within the diode, it…

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Different color light emitting diode LED


A light emitting diode (LED) circuit in electronics is an electrical circuit that powers an LED. The circuit must limit the current to avoid damaging the LED while supplying enough current to illuminate the LED at the necessary brightness. The simplest and most widely used circuit for driving LEDs is…

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